怎么拆分定语从句

  要彻底理解定语从句,一定要运用“拆分”的思想,把主句+很长的定语从句拆分开来。

  I am looking for a man who is rich, cute and well-educated.

  我在寻找一个有钱,帅,而且很有教养的男生。

  首先把这个定语从句拆分:

  1. I am looking for a man.

  2. The man is rich, cute and well-educated.

  接下来组合:

  I am looking for (a man the man) is rich, cute and well-educated.

  括号内a man和the man信息重复了,位于前面的词称之为先行词,后面一词我们可以把它叫做“后行词”。既然信息重复,为什么不能干脆删掉后行词?如果直接删掉后行词,会导致一个句子有两套主谓,关系会变得混乱,例如:

  I am looking for a man is rich, cute and well-educated.

  如果直接保留后行词,会造成重复,为了避免重复(众所周知,英文最讨厌重复),我们将后行词进行转变,在上例中the man变为who,经过转变之后,后行词除了具备原来的词义之外,还增加了连词的作用。

   

  一、Who/whom

  后行词是人,就用who/that来替代。但是如果后行词是宾格,即him,them,her,可以用whom进行替代,也可以直接用who。

  He is the boy who/whom I will go to shanghai with.

  拆分:

  1. He is the boy.

  2. I will go to shanghai with him.

  这两句的关联部分就是the boy和him,也就是所谓的先行词和后行词。为了衔接连贯,后行词需要前置,句2就变成:Him I will go to shanghai with.

  然后再将him替换为who或者whom:

  He is the boy who/whom I will go to shanghai with.

  有的时候,介词和后行词的关系十分密切,如果只前置后行词,它们的修饰关系就不明显,所以通常是将后行词和介词一起前置:With him I will go to shanghai.这个时候就只能使用whom替换him,把句子变成:

  He is the boy with whom I will go to shanghai.

  而不能写成这种形式:

  He is the boy with who I will go to shanghai

   

  二、Which/that

  后行词是表事物的名词,就用which或者that替换。

  The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy.

  拆分:

  1. The book is written by Tomas Hardy.

  2. I am reading the book.

  连接:

  The book(the book)I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy.

  后行词是表事物的名词the book,所以用which或者that 带替换。

   

  三、Whose

  后行词是his,her,its,their,your one 's等等表示所属关系的词,用whose代替。

  例1:

  He is the man whose car was stolen.

  拆分:

  1. He is the man

  2. His car was stolen.

  组合:

  He is the man (his) car was stolen.

  后行词是his,所以whose代词

  例2:

  You are the only one whose advice he might listen to.

  拆分:

  1. You are the only one.

  2. Your advice he might listen to.

  You are the only one (Your) advice he might listen to.

  后行词是your,所以用whose代替。

   

  四、Where

  后行词如果是地点状语(通常是介词+表地点名词),就用where替换。

  This is the house where I was born.

  拆分:

  1. This is the house.

  2. In this house I was born.

  This is the house (in this house) I was born.

  后行词是地点状语in the house,介词+表地点名词,所以用where替换。

  知道这点以后,我们高中时候纠结的先行词如果是the place,后面该用which/that还是where;先行词如果是time,后面该用which/that还是when的问题就迎刃而解了。因为答案藏在后行词之上。

  对比:

  This is the house that belongs to my brother.

  拆分:

  1. This is the house

  2. This house belongs to my brother.

  This is the house (this house) belongs to my brother.

  后行词是this house,前面没有介词,是表事物的名词,当然用which或者that。

   

  五、When

  如果后行词是时间状语(通常是介词+表时间名词),就用when替换。

  He came at a time when we needed help.

  拆分:

  1. He came at a time.

  2. At that time we needed help.

  He came at a time (at that time) we need help.

  后行词是时间状语at that time,所以用when替换。

  对比:

  He came at a time which was just perfect.

  拆分:

  1. He came at a time.

  2. The time was just perfect.

  He came at a time (the time) was just perfect

  后行词是the time,前面没有介词,是表(抽象)事物的名词,当然用which或者that。

   

  六、Why

  如果后行词是原因状语for this/that reason,就用why替换。

  I knew the reason why he was late.

  拆分:

  1. I knew the reason.

  2. For this reason he was late

  I knew the reason (for this reason) he was late.

  后行词是原因状语for this reason,所以用why替换。

  对比:

  The reason that he explained at the meeting was not acceptable.

  拆分:

  1. The reason was not acceptable

  2. He explained the reason at the meeting.

  The reason (the reason) he explained at the meeting was not acceptable.

  后行词是the reason,前面没有介词,是表(抽象)事物的名词,当然用which或者that。

   

  七、Where可以替代抽象的地点状语、when可以代替抽象的时间状语,引导定语从句

  English is a “fixed-word-order” language where each phrase has a fixed position.

  英语是一种“词序”固定的语言,其中的每个短语位置都有固定的位置。

  拆分以后:

  English is a “fixed-word-order” language.

  In this language each phrase has a fixed position.

  后行词是In this language“在这种语言中”,可以理解为抽象的地点状语,所以用where替代。

  Life isn't some musical cartoon where you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true!

  人生可不是什么卡通音乐剧,只要唱支小曲,你那无聊的梦想就会奇迹般实现。

  拆分以后:

  Life isn't some musical cartoon.

  In that cartoon you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true!

  后行词是In that cartoon “在那种卡通音乐剧中”,可以理解为抽象的地点状语,所以用where替代。

  抽象的时间状语较为少见,例如:

  There are occasions when one must yield.

  任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

  拆分以后:

  There are occasions

  One must yield on those occasions.

  后行词是on that occasions“在某些特定情况下”,可以理解为抽象的时间状语,所以用when替代。

  如果你能够把这些全部掌握,你的定语从句水平应该非常厉害了。

  
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